ˈbone-in ADJ. bone-in joint of meat: bone-in. bone - Wörterbuch Englisch-Deutsch. Stichwörter und Wendungen sowie Übersetzungen. Übersetzung Englisch-Deutsch für bone im PONS Online-Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion.
"to bone sb." Deutsch Übersetzungˈbone-in ADJ. bone-in joint of meat: bone-in. Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für bone im Online-Wörterbuch stephanieworsfold.com (Deutschwörterbuch). Übersetzung im Kontext von „want to bone“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: I want to bone her again.
Bone Deutsch Evolutionary origin and significance Video\
In normal bone, fractures occur when there is significant force applied, or repetitive trauma over a long time. Fractures can also occur when a bone is weakened, such as with osteoporosis, or when there is a structural problem, such as when the bone remodels excessively such as Paget's disease or is the site of the growth of cancer.
Not all fractures are painful. Compound fractures involve the bone's penetration through the skin. Some complex fractures can be treated by the use of bone grafting procedures that replace missing bone portions.
A common long bone fracture in children is a Salter—Harris fracture. This is to promote bone healing. In addition, surgical measures such as internal fixation may be used.
Because of the immobilisation, people with fractures are often advised to undergo rehabilitation. There are several types of tumour that can affect bone; examples of benign bone tumours include osteoma , osteoid osteoma , osteochondroma , osteoblastoma , enchondroma , giant cell tumour of bone , and aneurysmal bone cyst.
Cancer can arise in bone tissue, and bones are also a common site for other cancers to spread metastasise to. Cancers of the bone marrow inside the bone can also affect bone tissue, examples including leukemia and multiple myeloma.
Bone may also be affected by cancers in other parts of the body. Cancers in other parts of the body may release parathyroid hormone or parathyroid hormone-related peptide.
This increases bone reabsorption, and can lead to bone fractures. Bone tissue that is destroyed or altered as a result of cancers is distorted, weakened, and more prone to fracture.
This may lead to compression of the spinal cord , destruction of the marrow resulting in bruising , bleeding and immunosuppression , and is one cause of bone pain.
If the cancer is metastatic, then there might be other symptoms depending on the site of the original cancer. Some bone cancers can also be felt.
Cancers of the bone are managed according to their type, their stage , prognosis, and what symptoms they cause. Many primary cancers of bone are treated with radiotherapy.
Cancers of bone marrow may be treated with chemotherapy , and other forms of targeted therapy such as immunotherapy may be used. Osteoporosis is a disease of bone where there is reduced bone mineral density , increasing the likelihood of fractures.
This density is measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry DEXA , with the term "established osteoporosis" including the presence of a fragility fracture.
Osteoporosis treatment includes advice to stop smoking, decrease alcohol consumption, exercise regularly, and have a healthy diet. Calcium and trace mineral supplements may also be advised, as may Vitamin D.
When medication is used, it may include bisphosphonates , Strontium ranelate , and hormone replacement therapy. Osteopathic medicine is a school of medical thought originally developed based on the idea of the link between the musculoskeletal system and overall health, but now very similar to mainstream medicine.
As of [update] , over 77, physicians in the United States are trained in osteopathic medical schools.
The study of bones and teeth is referred to as osteology. It is frequently used in anthropology , archeology and forensic science for a variety of tasks.
This can include determining the nutritional, health, age or injury status of the individual the bones were taken from.
Preparing fleshed bones for these types of studies can involve the process of maceration. Typically anthropologists and archeologists study bone tools made by Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis.
Bones can serve a number of uses such as projectile points or artistic pigments, and can also be made from external bones such as antlers.
Bird skeletons are very lightweight. Their bones are smaller and thinner, to aid flight. Among mammals, bats come closest to birds in terms of bone density, suggesting that small dense bones are a flight adaptation.
Many bird bones have little marrow due to their being hollow. A bird's beak is primarily made of bone as projections of the mandibles which are covered in keratin.
A deer 's antlers are composed of bone which is an unusual example of bone being outside the skin of the animal once the velvet is shed.
The extinct predatory fish Dunkleosteus had sharp edges of hard exposed bone along its jaws. Many animals possess an exoskeleton that is not made of bone.
These include insects and crustaceans. Many animals, particularly herbivores , practice osteophagy —the eating of bones.
This is presumably carried out in order to replenish lacking phosphate. Many bone diseases that affect humans also affect other vertebrates—an example of one disorder is skeletal fluorosis.
Bones from slaughtered animals have a number of uses. In prehistoric times , they have been used for making bone tools. A special genre is scrimshaw.
Bone glue can be made by prolonged boiling of ground or cracked bones, followed by filtering and evaporation to thicken the resulting fluid.
Historically once important, bone glue and other animal glues today have only a few specialized uses, such as in antiques restoration.
Essentially the same process, with further refinement, thickening and drying, is used to make gelatin. Broth is made by simmering several ingredients for a long time, traditionally including bones.
Bone char , a porous, black, granular material primarily used for filtration and also as a black pigment , is produced by charring mammal bones.
Oracle bone script was a writing system used in Ancient China based on inscriptions in bones. Its name originates from oracle bones, which were mainly ox clavicle.
The Ancient Chinese mainly in the Shang dynasty , would write their questions on the oracle bone , and burn the bone, and where the bone cracked would be the answer for the questions.
To point the bone at someone is considered bad luck in some cultures, such as Australian aborigines , such as by the Kurdaitcha. The wishbones of fowl have been used for divination , and are still customarily used in a tradition to determine which one of two people pulling on either prong of the bone may make a wish.
Various cultures throughout history have adopted the custom of shaping an infant's head by the practice of artificial cranial deformation.
A widely practised custom in China was that of foot binding to limit the normal growth of the foot. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Rigid organs that constitute part of the endoskeleton of vertebrates. For other uses, see Bone disambiguation or Bones disambiguation ; note that this article uses anatomical terminology.
A bone dating from the Pleistocene Ice Age of an extinct species of elephant. Main article: Extracellular matrix. Main article: Anatomical terms of bone.
See also: Skeleton , Human skeleton , and List of bones of the human skeleton. Main article: Bone remodeling. See also: Bone disease.
Main article: Bone fracture. Main article: Bone tumour. Main article: Bone metastases. Main article: Osteoporosis. Main article: Osteopathic medicine in the United States.
Main articles: Bird anatomy and Exoskeleton. Gentry; Claud A. Bramblett The Anatomy and Biology of the Human Skeleton. New York: Marshall Cavendish.
The Free Dictionary. Textbook of Medical Physiology 12th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 28 May Journal of Physiological Measurements.
Bibcode : PhyM Basic Biomechanics with OLC 5th ed. Detroit: Visible Ink Press. University of Washington, n.
Tummy, n. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Princeton University Press. Princeton, NJ. Key Engineering Materials. Retrieved 6 February Amirsys, Inc.
Archived from the original on 30 October Retrieved 28 September OpenStax CNX. Principles of Anatomy and Physiology. Medicine LibreTexts. Grant's Atlas of Anatomy.
Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams, and Wilkins. New York: McGraw-Hill. Department of Bioengineering, University of California. Calcified Tissue International.
Pediatric Clinics of North America. Current Osteoporosis Reports. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 5 October Ciba Foundation Symposium.
Novartis Foundation Symposia. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. Radionuclide and Hybrid Bone Imaging. Retrieved 29 May Endocrine Reviews.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 18 May Anatomy, physiology, and metabolic disorders 5.
Summit, N. Medical physiology: a cellular and molecular approach. Philadelphia: Saunders. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research : 30— J Bone Joint Surg Am.
Archived from the original on 2 December Retrieved 2 December Cleveland Clinic. Retrieved 29 March Colledge, Brian R. Walker, Stuart H.
Ralston; illustrated by Robert Davidson's principles and practice of medicine 21st ed. American Osteopathic Organisation. Archived from the original PDF on 16 June Retrieved 26 November Rolf; Alfred Enderle The Anatomical Record.
American Museum of Natural History. Comptes Rendus Palevol. People and Nature in Historical Perspective. Central European University Press.
Bone and cartilage. Bones of the human skeleton. Bones in the human skeleton. The facial skeleton of the skull.
Anterior : fossae Incisive fossa , Canine fossa Infraorbital foramen Orbital bones Anterior nasal spine Infratemporal : Alveolar canals Maxillary tuberosity Orbital : Infraorbital groove Infraorbital canal Nasal : Greater palatine canal.
Body of maxilla Maxillary sinus. Orbital process Zygomatico-orbital Temporal process Zygomaticotemporal Lateral process Zygomaticofacial.
Pterygopalatine fossa Pterygoid fossa. Horizontal plate Posterior nasal spine Perpendicular plate Greater palatine canal , Sphenopalatine foramen Hard palate.
Pyramidal Orbital Sphenoidal. Neurocranium of the skull. Pharyngeal tubercle Clivus. Foramen magnum Basion Opisthion. Frontal suture Frontal eminence external Superciliary arches Glabella foramina Supraorbital foramen Brow ridge Foramen cecum Zygomatic process internal Sagittal sulcus Frontal crest.
Ethmoidal notch Fossa for lacrimal gland Trochlear fovea Frontal sinus Frontonasal duct. Articular tubercle Suprameatal triangle Mandibular fossa Petrotympanic fissure Zygomatic process.
Carotid canal Facial canal Hiatus Internal auditory meatus Cochlear aqueduct Stylomastoid foramen fossae Subarcuate fossa Jugular fossa canaliculi Inferior tympanic Mastoid Styloid process Petrosquamous suture note: ossicles in petrous part, but not part of temporal bone.
Suprameatal spine. Superior surface: Sella turcica Dorsum sellae Tuberculum sellae Hypophysial fossa Posterior clinoid processes Ethmoidal spine Chiasmatic groove Middle clinoid process Petrosal process Clivus Lateral surface: Carotid groove Sphenoidal lingula Anterior surface: Sphenoidal sinuses.
Superior orbital fissure Anterior clinoid process Optic canal. Body Sphenoidal conchae. Cribriform plate Crista galli Olfactory foramina Perpendicular plate.
Lateral surface Orbital lamina Uncinate process Medial surface Supreme nasal concha Superior nasal concha Superior meatus Middle nasal concha Middle meatus.
Ethmoid sinus ethmoidal foramina Posterior Anterior. Compound structures of skull. Nasion Gonion. Bones of the arm.
Bones of the torso. Body Arch pedicle lamina notch Vertebral foramen Intervertebral foramen Processes transverse articular spinous Spinal canal.
Uncinate process of vertebra Transverse foramen Anterior tubercle Carotid tubercle Posterior tubercle Atlas lateral mass anterior arch posterior arch Axis dens Vertebra prominens.
Costal facets superior inferior transverse Uncinate process of vertebra. Processes accessory mammillary. Base sacral promontory Ala of sacrum Lateral surface sacral tuberosity Pelvic surface anterior sacral foramina Dorsal surface posterior sacral foramina Median sacral crest Medial sacral crest Lateral sacral crest Sacral canal sacral hiatus.
Ribs true ribs false ribs floating ribs Parts angle tubercle costal groove neck head. Thoracic inlet Thoracic outlet Intercostal space Costal margin Infrasternal angle.
Bones of the human leg. Gerdy's tubercle condyles lateral medial intercondylar area posterior anterior intercondylar eminence lateral tubercle medial tubercle.
Bones of the pelvis. Fractures and cartilage damage. Avulsion fracture Chalkstick fracture Greenstick fracture Open fracture Pathologic fracture Spiral fracture.
Basilar skull fracture Blowout fracture Mandibular fracture Nasal fracture Le Fort fracture of skull Zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture Zygoma fracture.
Bone tissue makes up the individual bones of the human skeletal system and the skeletons of other vertebrates.
The functions of bone include 1 structural support for the mechanical action of soft tissues, such as the contraction of muscles and the expansion of lungs, 2 protection of soft organs and tissues, as by the skull , 3 provision of a protective site for specialized tissues such as the blood-forming system bone marrow , and 4 a mineral reservoir, whereby the endocrine system regulates the level of calcium and phosphate in the circulating body fluids.
Bone is found only in vertebrates , and, among modern vertebrates, it is found only in bony fish and higher classes. Although ancestors of the cyclostomes and elasmobranchs had armoured headcases, which served largely a protective function and appear to have been true bone, modern cyclostomes have only an endoskeleton, or inner skeleton , of noncalcified cartilage and elasmobranchs a skeleton of calcified cartilage.
Although a rigid endoskeleton performs obvious body supportive functions for land-living vertebrates, it is doubtful that bone offered any such mechanical advantage to the teleost bony fish in which it first appeared, for in a supporting aquatic environment great structural rigidity is not essential for maintaining body configuration.
The sharks and rays are superb examples of mechanical engineering efficiency , and their perseverance from the Devonian Period attests to the suitability of their nonbony endoskeleton.
In modern vertebrates, true bone is found only in animals capable of controlling the osmotic and ionic composition of their internal fluid environment.
Marine invertebrates exhibit interstitial fluid compositions essentially the same as that of the surrounding seawater.
Early signs of regulability are seen in cyclostomes and elasmobranchs, but only at or above the level of true bone fishes does the composition of the internal body fluids become constant.
The mechanisms involved in this regulation are numerous and complex and include both the kidney and the gills. Fresh and marine waters provide abundant calcium but only traces of phosphate; because relatively high levels of phosphate are characteristic of the body fluids of higher vertebrates, it seems likely that a large, readily available internal phosphate reservoir would confer significant independence of external environment on bony vertebrates.
With the emergence of terrestrial forms, the availability of calcium regulation became equally significant.
Along with the kidney and the various component glands of the endocrine system , bone has contributed to development of internal fluid homeostasis —the maintenance of a constant chemical composition.
This was a necessary step for the emergence of terrestrial vertebrates. Furthermore, out of the buoyancy of water, structural rigidity of bone afforded mechanical advantages that are the most obvious features of the modern vertebrate skeleton.
Bone Article Media Additional Info. Article Contents.